What is now the free and sovereign State of Puebla, was habited by human groups of different ethnicities. We have studied 454 prehistoric sites just in the Tehuacan Valley, the oldest is Ajuereado. There is evidence of nomadic families who lived 10,000 years ago, BC. We have found stone tools and fabrics dating from 6.500 to 4.900 BC.  Agriculture appeared before year 3,500 B.C and had spread across Aljojuca, Totimiuacán, Cholula and Izúcar. Agricultural irrigation comes from years 900-200 BC, corn, beans, squash, chili, cotton huautli (joy candy) is grown. From years 1520 -700 BC, trade, invasions, building of huts and altars are established.

Tepexi, Acatlan and part of Chiautla regions were Mixtec territories, tributaries of Ilhuicamina lordships. Olmeca-Xicalancas and Nahuas groups were located in the central part of the poblano territory  assimilating the Toltec culture, which flourished in Cholula, in the North, Totonacos, the Mazatecos and the Otomies settled and developed the Tajin culture.

By the fourteenth century, conqueror Nonoalca, Xelhua, "The Party" took over most of the territory, in the fifteenth century, Hueytlatocáyotl, Great Alliance War, brought under all populations, south and central parts are controlled by Mexico-Tenochtitlan, and the north controlled by Texcoco, domain that lasted until the arrival of the conquerors.

Hernán Cortés, after beating the Tlaxcaltecas, allies with the lordship of Huejotzingo and commits genocide in Cholula, he then enters Tenochtitlan and is defeated on July 30th 1520. He Organizes his troops in order to reinforce the allies that decisively defeat Tepeaca. Huaquechula and Itzocan joined the conqueror after they were defeated, because that was the tradition among the Nahua, this favored to defeat the Spanish capital of the Mexica Empire on August 13, 1521.

Slavery is established, on the cheek, the letter "G", both men and women are branded with a hot iron, and aboriginal land deals are made.

The manors extended in the present state of Puebla, in the early years of the colony were:

·         Tuchpa, situated between the rivers of Tecolutla and Tuxpan, only a small part corresponded to Puebla.

·         Tzicoac, a small part belongs to Puebla, Atla, south of Tzicoac.

·         Metztitlán, located west of Atla and Tzicoac and only small areas were part of the state.

·         Tlapacoyan, south of Atla and southwest of Tuchpa, reaching all the way to Tlaxcala.

·         Atotonilco, south of Metztitlán occupied a part of Puebla, west of Tlapacoyan.

·         Tlatlauquitepec, south of Tuchpa, north of Cuautochco, east of Tlaxcala.

·         Huaxtepec, a small part in Puebla.

·         Tepeaca, lordship of Tlaxcala adjoining south at north with Yoaltepec and Teotitlan del Camino and east with Cuautochco.

·         Tlacozautitlán is located in Guerrero and Morelos, Puebla had only a fraction, Quiauhteopan bordered to the east.

·         Yoaltepec, south of Tepeaca, west of Teotitlán and east with Quiauhteopan.

·         Teotitlan del Camino, bounded north by Cuautochco and Cuetlaxtlan, on the west by Tepeaca and Yoaltepec, and south by Coixtlahuacán and Tochtepec.

·         Cuautochco, located south of Tlatlauquitepec, north of Cuetlaxtlan and Teotitlán.

·         Coixtlahuacan was located south of Teotitlan, east of Yoaltepec, covering some territory of Puebla.

The spiritual conquest and evangelization began by the Franciscan friars since year 1524, when the convent of Huejotzingo was founded, from 1540 to 1560, the Tecamachalco, Quecholac, Tecali, Calpan, Cuautinchán, Zacatlán, Cholula, Huaquechula , Tepeaca, Tehuacan, Xalpa, Coatepec, and others. The Augustinian built monasteries in Chiautla, Chietla, Huatlatlauca, Tlapa, Chilapa, Xicotepec, Ilamatlán, Papaloticpac and Tututepec. Izúcar domains, Tepapayeca, Huehuetlán, Tepexi, Huajuapan and Tezoatlán.

Ecclesiastically Carolense bishopric was founded in 1526, located in Yucatan, but did not work there or in Tenochtitlan, but in Tlaxcala, and in 1550, its located on Puebla, their boundaries are extensive and vague since its inception.

The bishopric of Tlaxcala, consisted of Zacatlán, Ixtacamaxtitlán, Tlatlauquitepec, Xalacingo, Tecamachalco, Tehuacan, Acatlán, Piaxtla, Chiautla, Chietla, Izúcar, Tepapayeca, Tepeojuma, Huaquechula, Huejotzingo, Texmelucan and Puebla.

Because the Bishop lived in Puebla, ecclesiastical jurisdiction covered locations of current states of Puebla, Veracruz, Guerrero and Tlaxcala. The bishop continued to make changes, the jurisdiction of Huauchinango and Teziutlán did not belong to this diocese.

The town hall depended on Viceroy; so there was plan on their functions. The Royal Order of December 4, 1783, signed by Carlos III in Madrid gives instructions for the formation of municipalities and provinces and the following year, the province was composed of Puebla. Its territory was occupied by the Duchy of Atlixco (Atlixco, Tepeaca, Huauchinango) Puebla’s town hall, Zacatlán de las Manzanas, San Juan de Los Llanos, the Tetela,  Santiago,  Tecali, Tepexi de la Seda, Chiautla de la Sal, Acatlán,  Tehuacan  de las Granadas, Cholula, Teziutlán, Guayacocotla , Tlaxcala and Cuautla-Amilpas. With the purpose of creating a quartermaster to increase the royal incomes.

By royal decree on March 2 1793, Tlaxcala and their parties moved away. The party of Cuautla-Amilpas, accepting the royal order on September 8, 1792, became part of the Municipality of Mexico. The Municipality was habited in 1806 by 585 priests, 446 religious, 427 nuns, 25,517 Spaniards, 29,393 Spanish, 187.531 male Mexicanss, 186.221 female Mexicans, 37,318 men of other breeds and 40,590 women of other breeds. 508.028 in total, according to Manuel Flon, Conde de La Cadena, first mayor.

Tlapa, Iguala and their parties, were added in 1792, separated in 1849 to form the state of Guerrero. In 1853, Tuxpan integrates officially the State of Veracruz.

Graduate Carlos García Arriaga was the first governor in 1821. On March 18 1824 the Constituent Congress of the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla de los Angeles, recognizes 21 parties, which included Tlapa and Ometepec. The Federal Constitution on October 17 Is promulgated and on Dicember 17, 1824 the Constitution of the State is sworn. On December 12 1827, the State Congress decreed the expulsion of the Spaniards. In 1849, eight departments and 162 municipalities are included; in 1895 there were 21 districts and 180 municipalities.

During the struggle for independence of Mexico, large military contingents fight along Don José María Morelos. The city only organizes to defend against the insurgents, from the cathedral orders of  excommulgation are given for the revolutionary priests. Manuel Flon attacks insurgents in Izúcar and goes defeated, Mateo Musitu, was shot by the independence forces in Chiautla; Zacatlán and Chalchicomula in the north of Tehuacan. Acatlán and  Tepexi in the south were controlled by insurgents.

Once independence is consumed, the State of Puebla accelerates progress. Don Esteban de Antuñano founded the mechanized textile industry in 1831, fourteen years later there were 18 spinning and weaving factories in the city. Tragic events disrupt progress. Santa Anna besieged the city in 1845, and is rejected by General Ignacio Inclan.

In 1847 the U.S. imperialists with their leader General Scott, take over the city without a shot being fired. Often antagonized by General Joaquín Rea, but he failed to beat them. On September 22, Santa Anna besieged 20 days but withdrew its bid. When signing the Treaties of Guadalupe, by which Mexico lost 2,000,000 square kilometers, the invaders are removed from Mexico and Puebla in 1848.

In 1855 Francisco Ortega, pastor of Zacapoaxtla, proclaims a plan against the government of Comonfort, so he led an army of 18,000 men and defeated the rebels located in the City of Puebla on March 23, 1856. Following this, the goods of the church involved to compensate the widows, orphans and the costs of war.

The Reform Laws apply to the State in 1859. Palafoxianan library becomes property of the power and all convents were closed. After the Soledad treaty was signed by plenipotentiaries of England, Spain and France, their  troops withdrew from Mexico, except the French who advanced into the country on April 27, 1862.

On May first 6,000 French were settled in San Agustin del Palmar, on May second in Quecholac 2, and on May third in Acatzingo, On May 4th in Amozoc. That same day a fierce battle was fought in Atlixco among conservatives led by José María Cobos and Republicans led by the General Carvajal and O 'Horan who made 1,200 imperialist men run away, despite the numerical inferiority. Count Lorences, with 6,000 soldiers attacked the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe on May 5, at 11:45 am. The three attacks were rejected by the soldiers of General Ignacio Zaragoza, on both sides shone the value, but the Republic triumphed over the Empire. Highlights on this glorious day, the General Ignacio Zaragoza, General Miguel Negrete, General Porfirio Diaz, Francisco Alvarez General, General Santiago Tapia and General Ignacio Mejía; Colonels Puente Morales, Felix Diaz, Jose Solis, Zeferino Rodriguez and Joaquín colombres. The three Juanes of the North Mountains of Puebla: Juan Nepomuceno Méndez, Juan Crisóstomo Bonilla and Juan Francisco Lucas.

Marshal Elias Forey, French imperialist initiates the attack against Republicans on March 11, 1863, in Puebla, defended by General Jesús González Ortega for 62 days, Mexicans resist the invaders, on May 17 he surrenders to the imperialists with an honorable armistice.

As a consequence Maximilian of Hapsburg is named emperor of Mexico. On June 5, 1864 he was greeted with celebrations in Puebla on their way to Mexico. The resistance is strong in the state: Xochiapulco in the north; Tulcingo, Piaxtla, Chinantla and Acatlán in the south. In 1866, Napoleon III ordered the departure of the French troops begin withdrawal from Mexico in June, the remaining sail away on December 18th, which makes a total of 28,000 troops embarked.

On April 2, 1867, the Republicans take the state capital, ousting the conservatives. Two years later, President Juarez opens the railroad in Puebla, which arrived in Veracruz in 1873. The “Normal” School for Teachers is founded on September 15 1879.

In 1907 Necaxa’s hydroelectric plant is built and in the following year the Capital Electric Bond and Share was installed in the state. Textile workers go on strike, their demands were: eight hours of labor, training and recognition of trade unions, businessman were able to control the situation. The Anti re-election club held the first meeting  headed by Aquiles Serdan, on July 19, 1909. Surveillance of the family by the state government started on November 18, 1910 an   unequal battle against the troops is held; Maximum Serdán perished and the next day his brother Achilles.

Since 1912 the Zapatistas attacked several locations, the first land distribution treaty by Eugenio and Emiliano Zapata was signed in Ixcamilpa. In 1914, the Constitutionalist General Pablo González occupied the city, which the Zapatistas recovered and lost again by the attacks of the troops of General Alvaro Obregon.

General Carranza was heading to the port of Veracruz on 26 trains, when the forces of General Alvaro Obregon assaulted them in Puebla, on May 12, 1920.

The soldiers of the Military Academy commanded by Colonels Rodolfo Casillas and Jesus Loreto accompanied Baron of the Cuatro Cienegas to Totomoxtla, Puebla, where General Carranza ordered them to return. In Patla they were joined by General Rodolfo Herrero who on May 19, led them to the settlement of Tlaxcalantongo where General Carranza was assassinated.

Between 1921 and 1929 a period of instability for the state began. Characters like Vicente Lombardo Toledano who was governor in 1923 and left power to the forces of Antonio Villarreal. In 1929 when Leonides Andreu Almazan assumes government political disputes were attenuated. During the period of Maximino Avila the University of Puebla Camacho was created. In 1942 Gustavo Diaz Ordaz became governor.

Currently Puebla is an urban-industrial center having a fast growth aimed to join the megalopolis formed by the metropolitan area of Mexico City and the states of Mexico, Querétaro, Hidalgo and Morelos.

Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla 4 sur 104 Centro Histórico C.P. 72000 Teléfono +52(222) 2295500 ext. 5013
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla
4 sur 104 Centro Histórico C.P. 72000
Teléfono +52(222) 2295500 ext. 5013